(South East Asian Treaty Organization)
South Asian Treaty Organization was formed in Manila
(Philippines) in 1954 through the signing of the South East Asian
Collective Defence Treaty. The signatories were United States, Great
Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Thailand and
See Also: Prospects of SEATO
Text of the South East Asia Collective Defence
The parties to this treaty,
Recognizing the sovereign equality of all the parties.
Reiterating their faith in the purposes and principles
set forth in the Charter of the United Nations and their desire
to live in peace with all peoples and all Governments,
Reaffirming that, in accordance with the Charter
of the United Nations, they uphold the principle of equal rights
and self-determination of peoples, and declaring that they will
earnestly strive by every peaceful means to promote self-government
and to secure the independence of all countries whose peoples
desire it and are able to undertake its responsibilities,
Desiring to strengthen the fabric of peace and freedom
and to uphold the principles of democracy, individual liberty
and the rule of law, and to promote the economic well-being and
development of all peoples in the treaty area,
Intending to declare publicly and formally their
sense of unity, so that any potential aggressor will appreciate
that the parties stand together in the area, and
Desiring further to co-ordinate their efforts for
collective defence for the preservation of peace and security,
Therefore, agree as follows:
The parties undertake, as set forth in the Charter
of the United Nations, to settle any international disputes, in
which they may be involved, by peaceful means in such a manner that
international peace and security and justice are not endangered,
and to refrain in their international relations from the threat
or use of force in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of
the United Nations.
In order more effectively to achieve the objective
of this treaty, the parties, separately and jointly, by means of
continuous and effective self-help and mutual aid, will maintain
and develop their individual and collective capacity to resist armed
attack and to prevent and counter subversive activities directed
from without against their territorial integrity and political stability.
The parties undertake to strengthen their free institutions
and to co-operate with one another in the further development of
economic measures, including technical assistance, designed both
to promote economic progress and social well-being and to further
the individual and collective efforts of governments towards these
1. Each party recognizes that aggression by means
of armed attack in the treaty area against any of the parties or
against any state or territory which the parties by unanimous agreement
may hereafter designate, would endanger its own peace and safety,
and agrees that it will in that event act to meet the common danger
in accordance with its constitutional processes. Measures taken
under this paragraph shall be immediately reported to the Security
Council of the United Nations.
2. If, in the opinion of any of the parties, the inviolability
or the integrity of the territory or the sovereignty or political
independence of any party in the treaty area or of any other state
or territory to which the provisions of Paragraph I of this Article
from time to time apply is threatened in any way other than by armed
attack or is affected or threatened by any fact or situation which
might endanger the peace of the area, the parties shall consult
immediately in order to agree on the measures which would be taken
for the common defence.
3. It is understood that no action on the territory
of any state designated by unanimous agreement under Paragraph I
of this Article or on any territory so designated shall be taken
except at the invitation or with the consent of the government concerned.
The parties hereby establish a council, on which each
of them shall be represented, to consider matters concerning the
implementation of this treaty. The council shall provide for consultation
with regard to military and any other planning as the situation
obtaining in the treaty area may from time to time require. The
council shall be so organized as to be able to meet at any time.
This treaty does not affect and shall not be interpreted
as affecting in any way the rights and obligations of any of the
parties under the Charter of the United Nations or the responsibility
of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace
and security. Each party declares that none of the international
engagements now in force between it and any other of the parties
or any third party is in conflict with the provisions of this treaty,
and undertakes not to enter into any international engagement in
conflict with this treaty.
Any other state in a position to further the objectives
of this treaty and to contribute to the security of the area may,
by unanimous agreement of the parties, be invited to accede to this
treaty. Any state so invited may become a party to the treaty by
depositing its instrument of accession with the Government of the
Republic of the Philippines. The Government of the Republic of the
Philippines shall inform each of the parties of the deposit of each
such instrument of accession.
As used in this treaty, the "treaty area"
is the general area of Southeast Asia, including also the entire
territories of the Asian parties, and the general area of the Southwest
Pacific not including the Pacific area north of 21 degrees 30 minutes
north latitude. The parties may, by unanimous agreement, amend this
Article to include within the treaty area the territory of any state
acceding to this treaty in accordance with Article 7 or otherwise
to change the treaty area.
1. This treaty shall be deposited in the archives
of the Government of the Republic of the Philippines. Duly certified
copies thereof shall be transmitted by that Government to the other
2. The treaty shall be ratified and its provisions
carried out by the parties in accordance with their respective constitutional
processes. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited as
soon as possible with the Government of the Republic of the Philippines,
which shall notify all of the other signatories of such deposit.
3. The treaty shall enter into force between the states
which have ratified it as soon as the instruments of ratification
of a majority of the signatories shall have been deposited, and
shall come into effect with respect to each other state on the date
of the deposit of its instrument of ratification.
This treaty shall remain in force indefinitely, but
any party may cease to be a party one year after its notice of denunciation
has been given to the Government of the Republic of the Philippines,
which shall inform the Governments of the other parties of the deposit
of each notice of denunciation.
The English text of this treaty is binding on the
parties, but when the parties have agreed to the French text thereof
and have so notified the Government of the Republic of the Philippines,
the French text shall be equally authentic and binding on the parties.
Understanding of U.S.A.
The United States of America in executing the present
treaty does so with the understanding that its recognition of the
effect of aggression and armed attack and its agreement with reference
thereto in Article 4, Paragraph I, apply only to communist aggression
but affirms that in the event of the aggression or armed attack
it will consult under the provisions of Article 4, paragraph 2.
Done at Manila eighth day of September, 1954. [The
treaty was signed by the principal members of all eight delegations
at the Conference.]
Designation of states and territory as to which provisions
of Article 4 and Article 3 are to be applicable:
The parties to the Southeast Asia Collective Defence
Treaty unanimously designate for the purpose of Article 4 of the
treaty the states of Cambodia and Laos and the free territory
under the jurisdiction of the state of Vietnam. The parties further
agree that the above mentioned states and territory shall be eligible
in respect of the economic measures contemplated by Article 3.
This protocol shall come into force simultaneously
with the coming into force of the treaty.
In witness whereof the undersigned plenipotentiaries
have signed this protocol to the Southeast Asia Collective Defence
Done at Manila eighth day of September, 1954.
The Pacific Charter
The delegates of the United States, Great Britain,
France, Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Thailand and the Philippines,
Desiring to establish a firm basis for common action
to maintain peace and security in Southeast Asia and the Southwest
Convinced that common action to this end, in order
to be worthy and effective, must be inspired by the highest principles
of justice and liberty;
Do hereby proclaim:
First, in accordance with provisions of the United
Nations Charter, they uphold the principle of equal rights and
self-determination of peoples, and they will earnestly strive
by every peaceful means to promote the self-government and to
secure the independence of all countries whose peoples desire
in and are able to undertake its responsibilities;
Second, they are each prepared to continue taking
effective practical measures to ensure conditions favourable to
the orderly achievement of the foregoing purposes in accordance
with their constitutional processes;
Third, they will continue to co-operate in the economic,
social and cultural fields in order to promote higher living standards,
economic progress and social well-being in this region;
Fourth, as declared in the Southeast Asia Collective
Defence Treaty, they are determined to prevent or counter by appropriate
means any attempt in the treaty area to subvert their freedom
or to destroy their sovereignty or territorial integrity. Proclaimed
at Manila, this eighth day of September, 1954.
Source: Growth of International Law and Pakistan
By Mohammed Ahsan Chaudhri (1965). University of Karachi, Pakistan
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