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The Chronicle of Pakistan
Compiled by Khurram Ali Shafique
with special thanks to Aqeel Abbas Jafferi
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Jan 11, Lahore. Trade Union meeting; a central labour organisation formed – Faiz Ahmad Faiz among its members

Jan 17. UN adopts a resolution to set up a Commission of international members on Kashmir.

Jan 18. Ayub Khuro, CM, against more immigrants to Sindh

Jan 29. SC, UNO decrees plebiscite in Kashmir

Jan 31. Govt offices closed as Pakistan mourns Gandhi, assassinated yesterday

Jan 17. Sir Zafrullah pleads Pakistan’s case in the UNO Security Council

Feb 4. Jang turns into a 6-page daily

Feb 23-Mar 26. Constituent Assembly sessions (22 sittings)

Mar 1. A new ministry has been created to organise and direct the economy on sound and scientific lines. Separate from the Ministry of Finance, the new portfolio will be called the Ministry of Economic Affairs

Mar. Naqoosh, new Urdu literary quarterly launched; Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi and Hajira Masroor compile the first issue

Apr. 1 Raj currency imprinted “Govt of Pakistan”; new currency notes for Re.1 and coins issued

Apr 1. Government of Pakistan accuses the East Punjab in India to have cut off its water supply to the Central Bari Doab Canal System, the Dipalpur Canal System, and the Bahawalpur Doab Canal System.

Apr 21. UN adopts a resolution for Kashmir. Pakistan finds it more favorable to India than the earlier drafts, but the resolution reiterates the principle of plebiscite nevertheless.
Read text of Resolution

Jun 9. Hockey team for 1948 London Olympics announced

Jul 1. State Bank of Pakistan inaugurated by the Quaid

Jul 6. The Ministry of States and Frontier Regions has been created by the Quaid-e-Azam to deal with the affairs of the tribal teribal territories of the NWFP, the Balochistan tribal areas adjoining Dera Ghazi Khan district of Punjab, the excluded areas and the princely states. The ministry will function under the direct control, guidance and direction of the Quaid-e-Azam

Jul 9 A set of 4 postage stamps issued: Abdur Rahman Chughtai designs Re.1 stamp and folder

Aug 13. The UN Commission on Kashmir, after visiting India and Pakistan, adopts a resolution. Cease-fire is demanded, which will be followed by a plebiscite.

Aug 14 Karachi Radio Station inaugurated in tent studios at Queens Rd., Karachi

Sep 13 PM Liaquat Ali Khan takes over the portfolio of States and Frontier Regions from the Governor-General.

Sep Nurul Amin becomes Prime Minister of East Bengal

Sep 15 GG Nazimuddin makes his first broadcast speech: "There is no one better qualified in Pakistan than our Prime Minister, Liaquat, to lead the country along the path marked out by the Quaid-i-Azam."

Oct 22 Majeed Lahori starts satirical column ‘Harf-o-Hikayat’ in Jang

Dec 15-30 Constituent Assembly sessions (10 sittings)

Dec14 Maulvi Tameezuddin elected President of Constituent Assembly in the first session since Quaid’s demise


Akhtar Shirani
Poet (Sep 9)

Mohammad Ali Jinnah
Governor General (Sep 11)

Sheikh Ghulam Husain Hidayatullah
Governor of Sindh (Oct 5)



"There can be no controversy in the face of death." Top:Gandhi's body laid down for the last visage in New Delhi today. Bottom: Jinnah and Gandhi during their parlays 4 years ago.

Pakistan mourns Gandhi

January 31. All Government offices remained closed here as Pakistan officially mourned the Indian leader Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He was assassinated yesterday in New Delhi by a Hindu extremist from the RSSS. Gandhi and Jinnah remained proverbial antagonists for nearly three decades: differences on principles with Gandhi in 1920 put Jinnah on the path that eventually led to Pakistan. Jinnah's condolence message is untypically charged with emotions but carefully worded: "There can be no controversy in the face of death. Whatever our political differences, he was one of the greatest men produced by the Hindu community..."

Read complete message.

Gandhi played a major role in containg the violence in West Bengal last year, supported Pakistan's claim to immediate release of its cash endowments from the Indian reserve bank, and had recently declared his resolve to live in Pakistan in order to forge good relations between the two countries. He became increasingly unpopular with the Hindu extremist groups. Ironically, the father of Indian independence was shot dead for being "an agent of Pakistan," as accused by the extremists.

Annual Budget

February 28, Karachi. Finance Minister Ghulam Mohammad presented the country's first annual budget - an event that did not appear a certainty until a few days ago. The timely loan of 20 Crore Rupees by the Nizam of Hyderabad, and the release of Pakistan's share in the central assets by India through the late Gandhi's intervention have saved Pakistan from going bankrupt in its very first months.


April 26, Karachi. Charges of corruption lead to dismissal of Sindh CM Ayub Khuro by Governor Hidayatullah on Quaid’s instruction.

Top to bottom: Indian Prime Minister Nehru, and Pakistani Finance Minister Malik Ghulam Mohammad

Treaty signed under pressure: Pakistani Minister explains

May. Malik Ghulam Mohammad, the Finance Minister of Pakistan, declares that the treaty he signed on the 4th of this month in Delhi was forced upon him by the Indian Government. Following the Indus Basin Water Dispute which started on 1 April this year, a delegation of Pakistani representatives had gone to Delhi a few days ago with the proposal that the two governments should submit their differences to the International Court of Justice. This was not acceptable to India and after special intervention of the GG Lord Mountbatten and PM  Nehru a statement was signed between the later and the Pakistani Finance Minister, who was leading the delegation.

The statement declares that the two governments are eager to approach the problem in a practical spirit, and India will only progressively diminish the supply of water in order to allow sufficient time for the Government of West Pakistan to make alternate arrangements. The statement announces that the water is being restored to West Pakistan but Pakistan is required to deposit an escrow sum as may be specified by the PM of India. Ghulam Mohammad has accused the Prime Minister Nehru of high-handedness, saying that Nehru told him to sign the statement without negotiations as a condition for restoring the waters. 

Pakistan and India are at War

July 27, Kashmir. Less than a year since their partition, the two countries are formally engaged in a war over the disputed territory of Kashmir.

Jinnah is dead; long live Pakistan

September 11, Karachi. Quaid-i-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah passed away this morning. His funeral will take place on a small hill on Bunder Road, near Guru Mandir, just outside the federal capital Karachi. Radio Karachi will broadcast a running commentary on the funeral which is also likely to be attended by the Quaid's estranged daughter Dina, who has refused to live in the state founded by her father.

Demise of Jinnah whose unassailable personal integrity was the cornerstone of Pakistan's present regime is an irreplacable national loss at this early moment, especially given that no consitutional framework for the future could be finalised.

The last days of Jinnah were rather strained. Forced by his failing health to take rest in his official refuge at Ziarat (Balochistan), he was rather too far away from the federal capital where his subordinates seemed to be less than efficient in so many ways.

The new Governor-General

September 14, Karachi. "On the advice of the Prime Minister of Pakistan," reads the royal decree issued by King George VI of England, "His Majesty the King is pleased to appoint Khwaja Nazimuddin as Acting Governor-General of Pakistan in the vacancy occasioned by the sad demise of Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah." Since Pakistan has still not been decared a republic by its Constituent Assembly, it retains it dominion status and the Governor-General is formally appointed by His Majesty.

Khawaja Nazimuddin, a senior politician from East Bengal took oath as the acting Governor-General today. He was called from the East Pakistan soon after the death of Quaid-i-Azam, and reached barely in time to attend the funeral on the 12th.

The following is the text of the Governor-General's oath: "I, Khawaja Nazimuddin, do solemnly affirm true faith and allegiance to the constitution of Pakistan as by law established, and that I will be faithful to His Majesty King George VI, his heirs, and successors in the office of the Governor-General of Pakistan."

More about Khawaja Nazimuddin

The Nizam of Hyderabad with Sardar Patel after the fall

Hyderabad falls

September 17, India. Hyderabad (Deccan) has fallen to Indian forces after 4-day resistance. For Pakistan, it was a lost case since the beginning: the majority of the population was Hindu, and the land was surrounded by the Indian Dominion on all sides. However, the ruler was a Muslim, and the Muslims of Pakistan had a sentimental attachment with the historic state of Hyderabad (Deccan). Morever, the ruler had tried to help Pakistan with financial support.

India was just as touchy about Hyderabad as Pakistan is about Kashmir, and the "iron man of India" Sardar Patel indicated many times to the Pakistani Premier Nehru that if Pakistan relents in the case of Hyderabad India might reciprocate the gesture on the issue of Kashmir. However, Laiquat and the Pakistani ruling elite did not relent, and now with the chance of winning Kashmir in a barter is also lost forever.

Irrigating the desert

The Thal Project, recenty conceived to irrigate the Thal desert region in Punjab through a specially built Jinnah Barrage on River Indus at Kalabagh is perhaps the first major developmental project of the new country.

Sindhi exodus

refugees.jpg (8736 bytes)

January. According to a Hindustan Times report published this month, some 10,00,000 out of the total 12,00,000 non-Muslim population of Sindh have already arrived in India, and the exodus is still on. The Muslim League provincial government of Mr. Ayub Khuhro, and the bureaucracy, are accused of high-handedness and of not fulfilling promises made by Jinnah and Liaquat.

Riots in Karachi

January 7 Karachi remains the scene of sectarian massacre for a second day. The killings began yesterday with an attack on the Sikh train from the interior Sindh. Hindu and Sikh quarters have been looted, and many suspect high officials to have received shares in the booty

Pakistan, India observe Abducted Women’s Week

February 1-7. The number of women abducted during the riots that marked independence amounts to hundreds of thousands. Both countries have promised to take effective measures in this regard but not much has materialised. It is feared that the abducted women have mostly been sold to prostitution rackets and some even suspect patronage of senior officials. Meanwhile, the violence continues on both sides of the border.

Prophets of doom

March 6, Calcutta. Sajjad Zaheer and other leftists from Pakistan participating in the 2nd All-India Conference of the Communist Party India have agreed to form Communist Party Pakistan with the aim of capitalizing on the preceived weaknesses of newborn Pakistan, accelerate unrest and pave the way for communist revolution which should replace democracy. Writer Sajjad Zaheer (above left) is general secretary while Poet Faiz AhmedFaiz is among signatories.

See official website of Communist Party Pakistan

masoodAug 8 First Pakistani movie, Teri Yaad opens at Parbhat, Lahore. Asha Posley, Nasir Khan (right) who is Dilip Kumar's brother, stars in Daud Chand directed production of Divan Sardari Lal with lyrics by Qateel Shifai, Saifuddin Saif and Tanvir Naqvi, and music from Nath

Find more on Pakistan Film Magazine

Independence Day Celebrations

August 14. Pakistan launches the 3-day celebrations of the first anniversary of its independence from today. The following programme of the Independence Day celebrations is published in Dawn.


9:00 am Ceremonial parade at Clifton Maidan

11:00 am - 1:00 pm Distribution of cloth at 5 centres: (1) Municipal Girls School, Kaemari (2) Kenya Vidyala School, Frere Road (3) Solid Ice Factory Compound for refugees in Haji Camp (4) Municipal Office (5) Railway Institute Cant. Station

1:00 pm Feeding of the poor in all the refugee camps in Karachi. Cloth and fruit will be distributed to the patients in the hospitals.

1:30 pm - 2:30 pm Prayers in all mosques; prayers in churches, temples and other places of worship at times convenient to the respective communities

6:00 pm Public meeting at Jehangir Kothari Park. Chaudhri Khaliquzzaman will preside and the Prime Minister of Pakistan will address the meeting.

8:15 pm Broadcast by Quaid-e-Azam

8:30 pm Broadcast by the Prime Minister

9:45 pm Reception at the Prime Minister's House, 10, Victoria Rd, Karachi.

Sunday (15 August 1948)

Sports and functions at various schools and colleges

5:30 Rally of school children at Nihal Chand Recreation Grounds opposite Fire Brigade

9:00 pm Tattoo at Bath Islands

Monday (16 August 1947)

9:00 pm Tattoo at Bath Islands

9:30 pm Mushaira in Jehangir Kothari Park, behind Gulzar Restaurant

Who is the founder of Pakistan?

October 1, Lahore. The departure of heartbroken Rahmat Ali from the country he named in 1933 relieves the Government of a severe headache.

The Cambridge-based pamphleteer had been voicing his dissatisfaction with the creation of Pakistan ever since his arrival in Lahore on April 6. Unhappy over a smaller Pakistan than the one he had conceived in his 1933 pamphlet Now Or Never, his criticism was beginning to raise alarm while his claims of contribution to the Pakistan Movement were interpreted by his critics as boasting to be the real founder of Pakistan. "On his arrival in this country Chaudhri Rahmat Ali has expressed his intention of launching a Pakistan National Liberation Movement with the object of securing a repudiation of the June 3 Plan, 'by agreement if possible and without agreement if necessary'..." The Pakistan Times reported on May 22. Consequently, Rahmat Ali was denied a Pakistani passport, and later told to leave the country.

olympic.JPG (8217 bytes)London Olympics 1948


The voice of dissent: Masood Khaddar Posh.

Feudal lords are the best friends of the peasants

December. The officially appointed Bari Committee has stated in the recently published Report on Agricultural Reforms in Sindh: Feudal lords are the best friends of the peasants, who only repay their saviours with ingratitude!

Masud Khaddarposh has written a socialist note of dissent, which has been witheld from the printed text of the Report.

New currency notes

October 1 Govt of Pakistan has issued its first set of currency notes: Rs. 5, 10 & 100

Songs remembered

Teri yad ayay: Teri Yad

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