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The Chronicle of Pakistan
Compiled by Khurram Ali Shafique
with special thanks to Aqeel Abbas Jafferi
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Jan 1 Constituent Assembly adjourns for 3 weeks; constitutional recommendations refered back to Basic Principles Committee

Jan 2 Dacca. WP Cricket team wins over EP with 9 wickets

Jan 3 National Museum Karachi inaugurated by Governor General

Mar 9-Apr 4 Constituent Assembly sessions (22 sittings)

May 14, Lahore. Martial law lifted

Aug 1 PM Bogra makes his first monthly broadcast, promising the people that commodities will soon be brought down to "costs within easy reach of the people."

Aug 14 Wazir Mansion, the reported birthplace of Quaid-i-Azam, declared national monument

Sep 21 Referring to the foreign help received for overcoming the food shortage, PM Bogra states before the Chamber of Commerce and Industries: "I shudder to think of the terrible distress that might have been caused to the people of teh country if the USA, Canada and Australia had not come to our assistance."

Sep 23-Nov 13 Constituent Assembly sessions (19 sittings)

Oct 3 PM Bogra presents his constitutional formula in Assembly, suggesting bicameral parliament and GG, PM to be elected from different wings

Dec 23 In a statement before the Indian Parliament Mr. Nehru says that he could not go forward with the agreements set out earlier this year with the Pakistani Prime Minister regarding the plebiscite in Kashmir because "the whole context in which these agreements were made will change if military aid comes from America [to Pakistan]."

Chaudhri Khaliquzzaman appointed Governor of East Bengal


Shakir: film actor (Feb 2)

Hasrat Mohani: poet, literary critic, progressive political leader (May 13)

Master Ghulam Haider: music composer (Nov 9)


Martial Law in Lahore

March 6. Martial Law has been imposed in Lahore as the civil administration fails to contain the anti-Ahmadi violence, instigated by certain religious leaders.

This is the first time in the short history of this state that the military has been required to take over the administration of an entire city.

The new Prime Minister

Mohammad Ali Bogra, our new Prime Minister  

April 17. Using his special powers under the India Act 1935, Governor General Ghulam Muhammad has dismissed the PM Khawaja Nazimuddin. "I call upon the people of Pakistan to stand firm and united," Ghulam Mohammad states in his appeal to the people, "in their resolve to see that their needs are adequately served through a government that fully enjoys the confidence of the country."

The Act is still in use instead of a proper constitution in the now not-so-newly created state, and it does not contain any provision to justify petition in the High Court against the Governor General's dismissal of a Prime Minister. Obviously this provision was kept by the colonial masters to keep an upper hand over the native electorate.

The Constituent Assembly, however remains in place. Ghulam Mohammad nominated Pakistan's ambassador to the United States, Mr. Mohammad Ali Bogra, to be the next prime minister. Bogra, who did not know why he was being called back, has taken oath as the new Prime Minister within hours of the dismissal of Nazimuddin.

EXTERNAL LINKS: Ghulam Mohammad | Khawaja Nazimuddin | Mohammad Ali Bogra

Joint Defense

April 26, Bombay (India). Pakistani PM Mohammad Ali is printed in Times of India, to have said that joint defense by India and Pakistan "could be advantageously considered by the two countries" once outstanding disputes were settled. In his opinion through joint defense both the countries "would be able to save a lot of defense expenditure which we could usefully employ for the national good and for raising the standard of living of the masses."

Marked for death?

May 7, Lahore. Martial law authorities pass death sentence on Maulana Abdus Sattar Niazi.

May 11, Lahore. Martial Law authorities pass death sentence on Abul Ala Maududi for writing Qadyani Masla, and certain press statements delivered in February and March.

Punishment revoked

May 13, Lahore. Maududi and Niazi death sentences have been changed to imprisonments for life

May 14, Lahore. Lahore law lifted.

Defense budget has significantly lowered down to a 38% of the total for the next year, and the absolute defense expenditure has also lowered.

Kashmir: the end in sight?

August 20. Mr. Nehru and Mr. Bogra, after prolonged bilateral negotiations, issue a joint communiqué on Kashmir, stating that "the most feasible way of ascertaining the wishes of the people is by fair and impartial plebiscite." It has also been decided that the Plebiscite Administrator should be appointed by the end of April 1954.

Pakistan's alliance with the West will affect the Kashmir issue: says Nehru

December 21, New Delhi. Nehru has written a strong letter to Bogra stating that Pakistan's decision to join military alliances with the West is going to affect India's stand on the solution of the Kashmir problem:

"We, in India, have endeavored to follow a foreign policy which we feel is not only in the interests of world peace but is particularly indicated for the countries of Asia. That policy is an independent one and of non-alignment with any power bloc. It is clear that the policy which Pakistan intends to pursue is different. It means that Pakistan is tied up in a military sense with the U.S.A. and is aligned to that particular group of powers. This produces a qualitative change in the existing situation, and, therefore, it affects Indo-Pakistan relations, and, more especially, the Kashmir problem."

Khawaja Nazimuddin: Leader of Shortage?  

Food shortage

January. Pakistan is facing an acute food shortage since Spetmber last year. Although the government has started negotiations with the developed countries, including the United States, no remedy has arrived so far. Disgruntled, the people in the street have nicknamed the Prime Minister Nazimuddin as 'Quaid-e-Qillat' (the Leader of Shortage) - to rhyme with title of his predecessor Liaquat who was fondly called 'Quaid-e-Millat' (Leader of the Nation).

Let there be a plan

July 18. A Planning Board has been set up to make a detailed survey of the country's resources and to draw up a fresh five-year plan. The Board is expected to place the first draft of the plan for action from April 1954.

Mumtaz DaultanaForced exit

March 24, Lahore. Punjab CM Daultana is forced by PM Nazimuddin to resign. He was suspected of patronizing the religious element in anti-Ahmadi violence for his own political ends.

Run Out

June 24. Progressive Urdu daily Imroz has reported that cricketer Nazar Muhammad broke his arm and leg, ending his sports career, when he jumped out of filmstar Noor Jehan's bedroom window to escape her husband, filmmaker Syed Shoukat Hussain Rizvi.

Nanga Parbat

July 3, Northern Area. German mountaineer Herman Bohl reaches 8,125m high Nanga Parbat, the 9th  highest peak in the world

Truncated report raises suspicions

Liquat Ali Khan. whose murder still remains a mystery.

August 18. Mrs. Rana Liaquat Ali Khan has severely criticized the report on her husband’s murder. The report of the commission on Liaquat's murder, published yesterday, is known to have been extensively tampered with. 37 paragraphs out of the 64 pages have been deleted for “security reasons” reportedly mentioning important names.

This has annoyed many observers and common people who are now making their own guesses about the real assassins; GG Ghulam Muhammad and Gurmani are among names heard over grapewine.

Shall we ever know the truth?

Chances of the nation ever getting to the truth about Liaquat's murder become bleak as I.G police Sahibzada Etzazuddin, appointed to investigate after failure of the investigating commission, is suspiciously killed in a plane crash. Vital files are missing, believed to have been destroyed in the crash.

Songs remembered
Bhagan waleo: Shehri Baboo

Gallan sun kay: Shehri Baboo

Lo chall diye woh: Gulnaar

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